There are infections that cause infertility, which, in practical terms, hinder the conception of a child. Not everyone is aware of the fact that issues that are relatively easy to resolve can affect pregnancy so much. According to statistics, as many as a third of infertility cases are generated by infections of the reproductive part, both female and male.
In the last two decades there has been a clear decline in male reproductive capacity, in particular there has been a decrease in the average quantity of sperm produced and / or a significant decrease in motility. Very often there are cases in which male infertility is due to infections of bacterial origin.
Bacterial infections are responsible for around 10-15% of cases of male infertility. The infection can affect several sites of the male genital tract, such as testes, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicles. They can reduce fertility through various mechanisms: production of toxic substances for spermatozoa, reduction of their motility and ability to penetrate, alteration of the composition of the seminal plasma.
In most cases, in the absence of symptoms, men do not know that they have the infection which is normally discovered only on the occasion of a desire for fatherhood that is not materializing.
At diagnosis the infectious agents frequently encountered are E.Coli, Proteus, lebsiella, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma.
Testicular infections alter spermatogenesis. The most important infection involving the testicle in patients of reproductive age is mumps.
However, infections of accessory sexual glands, the prostate gland and the seminal vesicles are more frequently involved in cases of male infertility. The prostate contributes to the composition of the seminal plasma. The prostatic fluid plays an important role in inducing sperm motility and contains factors that protect the sperm from the acidity of the vaginal secretion. In prostatitis there is a reduction in the number and motility of spermatozoa and alterations in their morphology as well as alterations in the chemical-physical parameters of the seminal fluid.
The cases of men in whom Papillomavirus was diagnosed without their knowledge were definitely on the increase. Besides the risk of causing cancer to its partner, HPV in seminal fluid can also decrease fertility: on the male reproductive system this virus can cause asthenozoospermia, or reduced or absent sperm motility which is a frequent cause of infertility man. Although widespread, the E.coli bacterium also represents a risk to human fertility: if it reaches the genital system, it can affect the quality of the spermatic fluid, thus affecting the degree of fertility. Chlamydia is also an asymptomatic infection which, if left untreated, can lead to infertility in humans. In humans it can cause urethritis and epididymitis. Depending on the location it is able to cause partial or complete stenosis of the vas deferens and severe oligospermia. However, it has been found to a lesser extent always represents an element that negatively affects the fertile capacity of a man. Therefore, these are infections that are asymptomatic, but that can cause infertility or damage the quality of the spermatic fluid.
It is evident, how important it is to search for any infectious causes in case of couple infertility.